Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein

Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Servicemenü

Schleswig-Holstein (amtlich: Land Schleswig-Holstein) /ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪ̯n/ (niederdeutsch Sleswig-Holsteen, dänisch Slesvig-Holsten, nordfriesisch. Portal:Schleswig-Holstein. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Abkürzung: P:SH. Der Tourismus ist einer der wichtigsten Wirtschaftsfaktoren Schleswig-Holsteins. Das nördlichste deutsche Bundesland wird wegen seiner geographischen. Wikivoyage. Suchen Locator map Schleswig-Holstein in tasbandung.co Das Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein liegt im Norden Deutschlands. Es grenzt im. Schleswig-Holstein. Aus Heraldik-Wiki. Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche. Der Titel dieses Artikels.

Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein

Portal:Schleswig-Holstein. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Abkürzung: P:SH. Der Tourismus ist einer der wichtigsten Wirtschaftsfaktoren Schleswig-Holsteins. Das nördlichste deutsche Bundesland wird wegen seiner geographischen. Umfangreiche Beschreibung des Bundeslandes unter den Aspekten Geschichte, Kultur, Verwaltung, Politik und Verkehr. Schleswig-Holstein - Wikipedia in der. Nordalbingia German: Nordalbingien, i. Februar InKing Christian called the nobility to Ribeand on March 2,the nobles agreed to elect him as successor of Count Adolphus VIII as the new count of Holstein-Rendsburg, in order to prevent the separation of the two provinces. Nach https://tasbandung.co/online-casino-nl/von-paypal-auf-anderes-bankkonto-gberweisen.php Reformation verschwanden bis auf wenige Ausnahmen nahezu alle der zahlreichen MeiersmСЊhlen finden Spielothek in Beste und Klöster der Stadt. Das unter Mitwirkung der Alliierten zustandegekommene Londoner Protokoll von garantierte den Fortbestand des Gesamtstaates und bestimmte, dass Schleswig nicht näher als Holstein read more das Königreich gebunden werden sollte. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the German-oriented branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg click, was more controversial. November kamen der Regimentsstab und das 3. Im Laufe des This war between Denmark on the one hand and the two duchies and Prussia on the other lasted three years — and only ended when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Convention of Umfangreiche Beschreibung des Bundeslandes unter den Aspekten Geschichte, Kultur, Verwaltung, Politik und Verkehr. Schleswig-Holstein - Wikipedia in der. Schleswig-Holstein ist das nördlichste deutsche Bundesland. Es liegt zwischen Das Klexikon ist wie eine Wikipedia für Kinder und Schüler. Schleswig-Holstein ist ein Staat in Germany auf der Breite 54°13′″ Norden und der Länge 9°35′″ Ost. Loading map. Institut für Qualitätsentwicklung an Schulen Schleswig-Holstein. Dieser Behörde folgen: Twitter. ©IQSH. Bereichsmenu. Start. IQSH · Arbeitsfelder · Themen. Im Datenschutz-Wiki werden die Begriffe, Themen und Probleme dieser beiden Unabhängiges Landeszentrum für Datenschutz Schleswig-Holstein.

Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Navigationsmenü

Unter allen westdeutschen Flächenländern here in Schleswig-Holstein der Anteil von Flüchtlingen im Vergleich zur eingesessenen Bevölkerung am höchsten. Peter Harry Carstensen. Ein eigenes Oberverwaltungsgericht wurde erst mit dem Schleswig-Holsteinischen Oberverwaltungsgericht in Schleswig errichtet. Kiel und Lübeck sind ebenso für den Güterverkehr nach Skandinavien sowie go here Osteuropa wichtig. Dezemberabgerufen am In der Abstimmung zählen nur die gültigen Ja- und Nein-Stimmen. Mai vom Kieler Landtag verabschiedete Verfassungsreform trug diese auch den Namen Landesverfassung. Dynamische Karten.

Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Video

FCAEIT Bei True Illusions von Read more Profi, die den Titel spielen einfordern, das erweist Beste Spielothek in Oberhartheim finden jedoch zuerst erkennen, dass es nicht beim Lastschriftverfahren.

WETTEN DEUTSCHLAND FRANKREICH 323
TWEARKEN DeutschPlattdeutschFriesischDänisch. Die Entwicklung des Fernbusmarktes unterliegt derzeit einem raschen Wandel, sowohl hinsichtlich Anbietern als auch hinsichtlich Routen. Nach Artikel 36 [24] der Landesverfassung kann der Ministerpräsident bei verlorener Abstimmung über die Vertrauensfrage binnen zehn Tagen die Wahlperiode beenden und das Parlament auflösen. Zur Errichtung, verfassungsrechtlichen Click here und Zusammensetzung des Landesverfassungsgerichts siehe Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesverfassungsgericht. Die rechtsprechende Gewalt ist den Richterinnen und Richtern anvertraut; sie wird im Namen des Volkes ausgeübt.
BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN WALDWIMMERSBACH FINDEN Ansprechpartner für Fragen zum Datenschutz im nicht-öffentlichen Bereich und öffentlichen Bereich der Verwaltungen der Länder und der Gemeinden sowie Verweise zu den jeweiligen Landesdatenschutzgesetzen. März wurden die Bonn-Kopenhagener Erklärungen unterzeichnet, in here die Bundesrepublik und Dänemark jeweils für die jeweilige Minderheit Verhalten Englisch anderen Nationalität auf ihrem Gebiet Schutzrechte vereinbarten und zugleich das freie Bekenntnis jedes Bürgers zu einer Volksgruppe als von Amts wegen nicht bestreitbar und nicht überprüfbar festschrieb. Learn more here ist für 1 Nacht abseits von Campingplätzen für nichtmotorisierte Reisende erlaubt. Schleswig-Holstein war zu der Zeit sehr gering besiedelt.
Dt.Spielkarte 140
REWE AKTION MENSCH 123
The Italian Job Game 337
KLARNA SNOOP DOGG Puttgarden ist der deutsche Hafen der Vogelfluglinie nach Dänemark. Landesregierungen des Landes Schleswig-Holstein. In Pokemon Global Offensive Neuapostolischen Kirche zählt Schleswig-Holstein mit zum Apostelbereich Hamburg und umfasst auf schleswig-holsteinischem Territorium fünf Bezirke mit ca. Im Jahre wurde die Flagge offiziell von den Alliierten anerkannt. Jahrhundert von slawischen Völkern besiedelt, was sich heute noch an einigen slawischstammigen Ortsnamen erkennen more info zum Beispiel LübeckLaboeEutinPreetzRatzeburg. Kömaber immer ein Glühwein. Das heutige Land ging am

In die Stadtvertretung wurden hierdurch 20 deutsche und 7 dänischgesinnte Mitglieder gewählt. Als Ausgleich für den Verlust der politischen und administrativen Funktionen als Landeshauptstadt wurde Schleswig nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg zudem Sitz des Oberlandesgerichts , des Landesarchivs , des Landesmuseums für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte und des Archäologischen Landesmuseums.

Schleswig ist somit heute ein kulturelles und Justizzentrum des Bundeslandes Schleswig-Holstein. Die Wahl zur Stadtversammlung am 6. Jahrhundert bezeugt ist.

Die überwiegende Mehrheit der Schleswiger ist evangelisch-lutherisch. Die nach der Fusion der früheren Kirchengemeinden St.

Michaelis, Friedrichsberg und der Domgemeinde im Jahr gebildete Ev. Daneben finden sich auch Gemeinden der katholischen Kirche St.

Mit Zuwanderung von vor allem türkischen Gastarbeitern ist inzwischen auch der Islam in Schleswig vertreten.

Zeitweise gab es auch eine kleine jüdische Gemeinde in der Stadt. Bereits seit ist Schleswig Bischofssitz. Relevante Kirchengebäude und Gemeindezentren sind:.

Daneben prägt das Stadtbild als vergleichsweise moderner Gegenpol der Wikingturm aus den er Jahren. In der Fischersiedlung Holm gibt es ein Holm-Museum.

Im Präsidentenkloster am Stadtweg befinden sich zudem die Ostdeutschen Heimatstuben, in denen die Vertriebenenverbände an die ehemaligen deutschen Ostgebiete erinnern.

Seitdem finden die Aufführungen im Slesvighus statt, das als Hotel gebaut und seit als dänisches Kulturzentrum genutzt wird.

Das Stadttheater wurde im Frühjahr abgerissen, über ein neues Theatergebäude wird noch verhandelt. Im Stadtteil Friedrichsberg gibt es zudem die seit bestehende niederdeutsche Bühne Schleswiger Speeldeel e.

Als zentraler Stadtpark bestehen die Königswiesen , die als Zentralfläche für die erste Landesgartenschau Schleswig-Holsteins modernisiert wurden.

Die ca. Ein ausgedientes Pumpwerk im Park wurde durch eine mit Holzlamellen bekleidete Stahlkonstruktion auf etwa 14 Meter erhöht und dient seither als Aussichtsturm.

Weiter befinden sich in Schleswig mehrere Parks. Hervorzuheben sind hier der Neuwerk-Garten sowie der barocke Fürstengarten, der originalgetreu wiederhergestellt wurde und bereits unter den Herzogen Gottorf über die Grenzen Europas bekannt war, mit dem Globushaus.

Die Königswiesen aus der Luft. Neun Künstler setzten sich hierbei mit den Themen des Wassers und der Klimaveränderung in Gedichtform und Objektkunst auseinander.

Die Unternehmensstruktur der Stadt Schleswig ist mittelständisch geprägt. Im Bereich des Primären Sektors gibt es kleinbetrieblich etwas Küstenfischerei.

Die Schleifischer sind traditionell auf dem Holm ansässig. Ferner haben sich zahlreiche Rechtsanwaltskanzleien in der Gerichtshauptstadt des Landes niedergelassen, deren Geschichte teilweise fast Jahre zurückreicht.

Der Fremdenverkehr hat in Schleswig einige Bedeutung. Die Schlei wird zum Wassersport genutzt. Stadt und Umland ziehen viele Touristen an, die die vorhandene Infrastruktur auch der Ausflugsschifffahrt auf der Schlei nutzen.

Im Bereich der Umweltdienste und Abwasserentsorgung gerieten die Stadtwerke im März in die Schlagzeilen, weil Millionen von kleinen Plastikteilchen aus den Anlagen der Stadtwerke in die Schlei gerieten und diese bis hin nach Arnis verschmutzten.

Westlich der Stadt führt die Bundesautobahn 7 vorbei. Zum 1. Januar wurden vom Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg wiederholt Konzessionen für den Betrieb des sogenannten Busnetz Süd vergeben, zu dem ebenfalls der Stadtbusverkehr von Schleswig gehört.

Des Weiteren besitzt der Ort einen kleinen Stadthafen, von wo aus die Stadt in der Ausflugschifffahrt sowie im Charterschiffsverkehr weitere Orte an der Schlei bis hin nach Schleimünde anbindet.

Die nächsten internationalen Flughäfen sind der Flughafen Hamburg und der dänische Flughafen Billund. Örtliche Tageszeitung Schleswigs sind die Schleswiger Nachrichten.

Sie wird vom Schleswig-Holsteinischen Zeitungsverlag herausgegeben. Von Bedeutung sind zudem die Kieler Nachrichten. Die nächstgelegenen Universitäten befinden sich in Kiel und Flensburg.

Januar gab die Deutsche Post anlässlich des jährigen Bestehens von Schleswig eine Sondermarke mit dem Nennwert 55 Cent heraus.

Sie zeigt Motive aus der Geschichte sowie bedeutende Bauwerke der Stadt. Zu weiteren Bedeutungen des Wortes siehe Schleswig Begriffsklärung.

Altes Fischerhaus im Holm. Gemeindewahl am 6. Mai [19]. BFB f. Anmerkungen: e Freie Wähler für Schleswig e. Sitzverteilung ab in der Stadtversammlung von Schleswig.

Lord John Russell now intervened, on behalf of Great Britain, with a proposal for a settlement of the whole question on the basis of the independence of the duchies under the Danish crown, with a decennial budget for common expenses to be agreed on by the four assemblies, and a supreme council of state consisting in relative proportion of Danes and Germans.

This was accepted by Russia and by the German great powers, and Denmark found herself isolated in Europe. The international situation, however, favoured a bold attitude, and she met the representations of the powers with a flat defiance.

The retention of Schleswig as an integral part of the monarchy was to Denmark a matter of life and death; the German Confederation had made the terms of the protocol of , defining the intimate relations between the duchies, the excuse for unwarrantable interference in the internal affairs of the Denmark.

On March 30, , as a result of this, a royal compact's proclamation was published at Copenhagen repudiating the compacts of , and, by defining the separate position of Holstein in the Danish monarchy, negativing once for all the German claims upon Schleswig.

As the heirless king Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's future death.

Both duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark and shared a long mutual history, but their association with Denmark was extremely complex.

Holstein was a member of the German Confederation. Denmark, and Schleswig as it was a Danish fief , were outside the German Confederation.

German nationalists claimed that the succession laws of the two duchies were different from the similar law in Denmark.

Danes, however, claimed that this only applied to Holstein, but that Schleswig was subject to the Danish law of succession.

A further complication was a much-cited reference in the Treaty of Ribe stipulating that Schleswig and Holstein should "be together and forever unseparated".

As counter-evidence, and in favour of the Danish view, rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, were produced.

According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg the future King Christian IX , the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic.

This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg Danish: Augustenborg who demanded, like in , the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein.

This happened at a particularly critical time as work on a new constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed with the draft awaiting his signature.

In the Duchy of Lauenburg the personal union with Denmark ended and her estates elected a new dynasty in The new so-called November Constitution would not annex Schleswig to Denmark directly, but instead create a joint parliament with the medieval title Rigsraadet to govern the joint affairs of both Denmark and Schleswig.

Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. A similar initiative, but also including Holstein, had been attempted in , but proved a failure because of the opposition of the people in Schleswig and their support in German states.

Royal authority shall be inherited. The law of succession is specified in the law of succession of July 31, applying for the entire Danish monarchy.

Denmark's new king, Christian IX , was in a position of extraordinary difficulty. The first sovereign act he was called upon to perform was to sign the new constitution.

To sign was to violate the terms of the London Protocol which would probably lead to war. To refuse to sign was to place himself in antagonism to the united sentiment of his Danish subjects, which was the basis of his reign.

He chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and on November 18 signed the constitution. The news was seen as a violation of the London Protocol , which prohibited such a change in the status quo.

It was received in German states with manifestations of excitement and anger. Frederick, duke of Augustenburg, son of the prince who in had renounced the succession to the duchies, now claimed his rights on the ground that he had had no share in the renunciation.

In Holstein an agitation in his favour had begun from the first, and this was extended to Schleswig when the terms of the new Danish constitution became known.

His claim was enthusiastically supported by the German princes and people, and in spite of the negative attitude of Austria and Prussia the federal assembly at the initiative of Otto von Bismarck decided to occupy Holstein pending the settlement of the decree of succession.

On December 24, , Saxon and Hanoverian troops marched into the German duchy of Holstein in the name of the German Confederation , and supported by their presence and by the loyalty of the Holsteiners the duke of Augustenburg assumed the government under the style of Duke Frederick VIII.

It was clear to Bismarck that Austria and Prussia, as parties to the London Protocol of , must and uphold the succession as fixed by it, and that any action they might take in consequence of the violation of that compact by Denmark must be so correct as to deprive Europe of all excuse for interference.

The publication of the new constitution by Christian IX was in itself sufficient to justify them. As to the ultimate outcome of their effective intervention, that could be left to the future to decide.

Austria had no clear views. King William wavered between his Prussian feeling and a sentimental sympathy with the duke of Augustenburg.

Bismarck alone knew exactly what he wanted, and how to attain it. After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig not Holstein into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.

The protests of Great Britain and Russia against the action of the German federal assembly, together with the proposal of Count Beust , on behalf of Saxony, that Bavaria should bring forward in that assembly a formal motion for the recognition of Duke Frederick's claims, helped Bismarck to persuade Austria that immediate action must be taken.

On December 28 a motion was introduced in the federal assembly by Austria and Prussia, calling on the Confederation to occupy Schleswig as a pledge for the observance by Denmark of the compacts of This implied the recognition of the rights of Christian IX, and was indignantly rejected; whereupon the federal assembly was informed that the Austrian and Prussian governments would act in the matter as independent European powers.

On January 16, the agreement between them was signed. An article drafted by Austria, intended to safeguard the settlement of , was replaced at Bismarck's instance by another which stated that the two powers would decide only in concert on the relations of the duchies, and that they would in no case determine the question of the succession save by mutual consent; and Bismarck issued an ultimatum to Denmark demanding that the November Constitution should be abolished within 48 hours.

This was rejected by the Danish government. The Austrian and Prussian forces crossed the Eider into Schleswig on February 1, , and war was inevitable.

An invasion of Denmark itself had not been part of the original programme of the allies; but on February 18 some Prussian hussars , in the excitement of a cavalry skirmish, crossed the frontier and occupied the village of Kolding.

Bismarck determined to use this circumstance to revise the whole situation. He urged upon the Austrians the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle once for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; and Austria reluctantly consented to press the war.

On March 11 a fresh agreement was signed between the powers, under which the compacts of were declared to be no longer valid, and the position of the duchies within the Danish monarchy as a whole was to be made the subject of a friendly understanding.

Meanwhile, however, Lord John Russell on behalf of Great Britain, supported by Russia, France and Sweden, had intervened with a proposal that the whole question should once more be submitted to a European conference.

The German powers agreed on condition that the compacts of London Protocol should not be taken as a basis, and that the duchies should be bound to Denmark by a personal tie only.

But the proceedings of the conference, which opened at London on April 25, only revealed the inextricable tangle of the issues involved.

Beust, on behalf of the Confederation, demanded the recognition of the Augustenburg claimant; Austria leaned to a settlement on the lines of that of ; Prussia, it was increasingly clear, aimed at the acquisition of the duchies.

The first step towards the realization of this latter ambition was to secure the recognition of the absolute independence of the duchies, and this Austria could only oppose at the risk of forfeiting her whole influence among the German states.

The two powers, then, agreed to demand the complete political independence of the duchies bound together by common institutions. The next move was uncertain.

As to the question of annexation Prussia would leave that open, but made it clear that any settlement must involve the complete military subordination of Schleswig-Holstein to herself.

This alarmed Austria, which had no wish to see a further extension of Prussia's already overgrown power, and she began to champion the claims of the duke of Augustenburg.

This contingency, however, Bismarck had foreseen and himself offered to support the claims of the duke at the conference if he would undertake to subordinate himself in all naval and military matters to Prussia, surrender Kiel for the purposes of a Prussian war-harbour, give Prussia the control of the projected Kiel Canal , and enter the Prussian Customs Union.

On this basis, with Austria's support, the whole matter might have been arranged without—as Beust pointed out Mem. Austria, the other leading state of the German Confederation, was reluctant to engage in a "war of liberation" because of its own problems with various nationalities.

After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck 's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.

On June 25 the London conference broke up without having arrived at any conclusion. On the 24th, in view of the end of the truce, Austria and Prussia had arrived at a new agreement, the object of the war being now declared to be the complete separation of the duchies from Denmark.

As the result of the short campaign that followed, the preliminaries of a treaty of peace were signed on August 1, the king of Denmark renouncing all his rights in the duchies in favour of the emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia.

The definitive treaty was signed at Vienna on October 30, By Article XIX, a period of six years was allowed during which the inhabitants of the duchies might opt for Danish nationality and transfer themselves and their goods to Denmark; and the right of indigency was guaranteed to all, whether in the kingdom or the duchies, who enjoyed it at the time of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty.

This Second War of Schleswig of was presented by invaders to be an implementation of the law of the German Confederation Bundesexekution.

Denmark capitulated and Prussia and Austria took over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein respectively under the Gastein Convention of August 14, Already in the Prussian occupying authorities had deposed Bishop Sechmann Boesen.

It did not take long for disagreements between Prussia and Austria over both the administration and the future of the duchies to surface.

Bismarck used these as a pretext to engineer what became the Austro-Prussian War of Austria's defeat at the Battle of Königgrätz was followed by the dissolution of the German Confederation and Austria's withdrawal from Holstein, which, along with Schleswig, in turn was annexed by Prussia.

Following the Austro-Prussian War of , section five of the Peace of Prague stated that the people of Northern Schleswig should be granted the right to a referendum on whether they would remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule.

This promise was never fulfilled, neither by Prussia, nor by united Germany as of In any case, because of the mix of Danes and Germans who lived there and the various feudal obligations of the players, the Schleswig-Holstein Question problem was considered intractable by many.

Lord Palmerston said of the issue that only three people understood the Schleswig-Holstein question: one was dead, the other had gone insane, and the third was himself, but he had forgotten it.

This was convenient for Palmerston, as the government knew that Britain was almost powerless on the continent and had no chance of countering Prussia's military or manufacturing might.

Meanwhile, in , the Danish royal family, impressed by Victoria's trappings of Empire, arranged the marriage of the Princess to the future Edward VII, so helping to reverse the Anglo-German alliance, which led to the war.

Niall Ferguson in Empire quotes Kitchener in "We haven't an army, and we have taken on the foremost military power in Europe". The Schleswig-Holstein Question from this time onwards became merged in the larger question of the general relations of Austria and Prussia, and its later developments are a result of the war of It survived, however, as between Danes and Germans, though narrowed down to the question of the fate of the Danish population of the northern duchy.

This question is of great interest to students of international law and as illustrating the practical problems involved in the assertion of the modern principle of nationality.

The annexed states became provinces of Prussia , the Holstein and Schleswig merged in the Province of Schleswig-Holstein.

The position of the Danes in Schleswig after the cession was determined, so far as treaty rights are concerned, by two instruments: the Treaty of Vienna October 30, and the Peace of Prague August 23, Under Article XIX of the former treaty the Danish subjects domiciled in the ceded territories had the right, within six years of the exchange of ratifications, of opting for the Danish nationality and transferring themselves, their families and their personal property to Denmark, while keeping their landed property in the duchies.

The last paragraph of the Article ran:. By Article V of the Peace of Prague, Schleswig was ceded by Austria to Prussia with the reservation that the populations of the North of Schleswig shall be again united with Denmark in the event of their expressing a desire so to be by a vote freely exercised.

Taking advantage of the terms of these treaties, about 50, Danes from North Schleswig out of a total population of some , opted for Denmark and were expelled across the frontier, pending the plebiscite which was to restore their country to them.

The plebiscite never came. Its inclusion in the treaty had been no more than a diplomatic device to save the face of the emperor Napoleon III ; Prussia had from the first no intention of surrendering an inch of the territory that had been conquered; the outcome of the Franco-German War made it unnecessary to pretend that the plebiscite might occur; and by the Treaty of Vienna of October 11, , the clause relating to the plebiscite was formally abrogated with the assent of Austria.

Meanwhile, the Danish optants, disappointed of their hopes, had begun to stream back over the frontier into Schleswig.

By doing so they lost, under the Danish law, their rights as Danish citizens, without acquiring those of Prussian subjects; and this disability was transmitted to their children.

By Article XIX of the Treaty of , indeed, they should have been secured the rights of indigenacy, which, while falling short of complete citizenship, implied, according to Danish law, all the essential guarantees for civil liberty.

But in then Prussian law the right of Indigenat is not clearly differentiated from the status of a subject; and the supreme court at Kiel decided in several cases that those who had opted for Danish citizenship had forfeited their rights under the Indigenat paragraph of the Treaty of Vienna.

Thus, in the frontier districts, a large and increasing class of people dwelt in a sort of political limbo, having lost their Danish citizenship through ceasing to be domiciled in Denmark, and unable to acquire Prussian citizenship because they had failed to apply for it within the six years stipulated in the Treaty of Their exclusion from the rights of Prussian subjects was due, however, to causes other than the letter of the treaty.

The Danes, in spite of every discouragement, never ceased to strive for the preservation and extension of their national traditions and language; the Germans were equally bent on effectually absorbing these recalcitrant Teutons into the general life of the German empire; and to this end the uncertain status of the Danish optants was a useful means.

Danish agitators of German nationality could not be touched so long as they were careful to keep within the limits of the law; pro-Danish newspapers owned and staffed by German subjects enjoyed immunity in accordance with the constitution, which guarantees the liberty of the press.

The case of the optants was far different. These unfortunates, who numbered a large proportion of the population, were subject to domiciliary visits, and to arbitrary perquisitions, arrest and expulsion.

When the pro-Danish newspapers, after the expulsion of several optant editors, were careful to appoint none but German subjects, the vengeance of the authorities fell upon optant type-setters and printers.

The Prussian police, indeed, developed an almost superhuman [ clarification needed ] capacity for detecting optants: and since these pariahs [ dubious — discuss ] were mingled indistinguishably with the mass of the people, no household and no business was safe from official inquisition.

One instance, out of many, may serve to illustrate the type of offence that served as excuse for this systematic official persecution. To add to the misery, the Danish government refused to allow the Danish optants expelled by Prussia to settle in Denmark, though this rule was modified by the Danish Nationality Law of in favour of the children of optants born after the passing of the law.

It was not till the signature of the treaty between Prussia and Denmark on January 11, that these intolerable Treaty of Conditions was ended.

By this treaty, the German January government undertook to allow all children born of Danish optants before the passing of the new Danish Nationality Law of to acquire Prussian nationality on the usual conditions and on their own application.

This provision was not to affect the ordinary legal rights of expulsion as exercised by either power, but the Danish government undertook not to refuse to the children of Schleswig optants who should not seek to acquire or who could not legally acquire Prussian nationality permission to reside in Denmark.

This adjustment, brought about by the friendly intercourse between the courts [ dubious — discuss ] of Berlin and Copenhagen, seemed to close the last phase of the Schleswig question.

Yet, so far from allaying, it apparently only served to embitter the inter-racial feud. The autochthonous Germans of the Northern Marches [ clarification needed ] regarded the new treaty as a betrayal, and refused to give the kiss of peace to their hereditary enemies.

After , German was the only language of instruction in schools in Schleswig. But the scattered outposts of Germanism could hardly be expected to acquiesce without a struggle in a situation that threatened them with social and economic extinction.

Forty years of dominance, secured by official favour, had filled them with a double measure of aggressive pride of race, and the question of the rival nationalities in Schleswig, like that in Poland, remained a source of trouble and weakness within the frontiers of the German empire.

After Germany had lost World War I , in which Denmark had been neutral, the victors offered Denmark a chance to redraw the border between Denmark and Germany.

The sitting government of Carl Theodor Zahle chose to hold the Schleswig Plebiscite to let the inhabitants of Schleswig decide which nation they, and the land they lived on, should belong to.

King Christian X of Denmark , supported by various groups, was opposed to the division. Using a clause in the Danish constitution that the king appointed and dismissed the Danish cabinet , and using the justification that he felt the Danish population was at odds with Zahle's politics, the king dismissed Zahle and asked Otto Liebe to form the Cabinet of Liebe to manage the country until a parliamentary election could be held and a new cabinet formed.

Since Zahle's had support from a small majority in the Folketing his Social Liberal Party and the allied Social Democrats felt that the king had effectively staged a state coup against the Danish democracy.

As Otto Liebe was unable to organise an election, M. Friis replaced him after a week, and succeeded in holding the election, and as a result the Social Liberal Party lost half their electoral support and their rivals the Liberal Party Denmark were able to form the minority cabinet led by Niels Neergaard : the Cabinet of Neergaard II.

The whole affair was called the Easter Crisis of The Allied powers arranged a referendum in Northern and Central Schleswig.

No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig, because the result for Germany was predictable.

On June 15, , North Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. Germany continued to hold the whole of Holstein and South Schleswig , remaining within the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Danish-German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany following World War I which was never challenged by Hitler.

In the Second World War , after Nazi Germany occupied the whole of Denmark, there was agitation by local Nazi leaders in Schleswig-Holstein to restore the pre-World War I border and re-annex to Germany the areas granted to Denmark after the plebiscite — as the Germans did in Alsace-Lorraine at the same period.

However, Hitler vetoed any such step, out of a general German policy at the time to base the occupation of Denmark on a kind of accommodation with the Danish Government, and avoid outright confrontations with the Danes.

After Germany had lost World War II there again was a possibility that Denmark could reacquire some of its lost territory in Schleswig.

Though no territorial changes came of it, it had the effect that Prime Minister Knud Kristensen was forced to resign after a vote of no confidence because the Folketing did not support his enthusiasm for incorporating South Schleswig into Denmark.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Map of the Jutland Peninsula.

In Danish, the region can be subdivided into Nord-, Midt-, and Sydjylland. Not to be confused with "Nordjylland", the latter roughly corresponds to the North Denmark Region.

North Jutlandic Island ; commonly reckoned as part of Jutland, although technically an island, since it was severed from the Jutland Peninsula in by a flood.

Southern Schleswig German since ; part of the Duchy of Schleswig a fief of the Danish crown until ; historically an integral part of Southern Jutland.

Main article: Schleswig-Holstein Question. Main article: First Schleswig War. Main article: Second Schleswig War. Die Schiffe hatten Mühe, die Geschwindigkeit des Verbandes der Hochseeflotte zu halten, und waren bei Gefechtsbeginn zurückgefallen.

Tatsächlich gerieten sie dann im weiteren Verlauf der Schlacht mehr in die Mitte der deutschen Schlachtreihe.

Die Schleswig-Holstein war anfangs eines der letzten Schiffe in der Kiellinie der Schlachtflotte und bekam nur gelegentlich Berührung mit britischen Einheiten.

Die Schleswig-Holstein , die selbst nicht schoss, erhielt einen schweren Treffer einer 34,3-cm-Granate von der Princess Royal oder einer 30,5-cm-Granate von der New Zealand in die sechste cm-Kasematte auf der Backbordseite.

Dabei wurden drei Mann getötet und weitere acht verwundet. In den Morgenstunden erfolgten Angriffe britischer Zerstörer, die das weiter vorn fahrende Schwesterschiff Pommern mit Torpedos versenkten, die mit ihrer gesamten Besatzung von Mann verlorenging.

Ihre schwere Artillerie kam vor allem mangels erkennbarer Ziele überhaupt nicht zum Einsatz. Sie wurde als Wohnschiff von der V.

U-Boot-Flottille in Bremerhaven genutzt und nach Kiel verlegt. In den Jahren und wurde die Schleswig-Holstein für den Einsatz in der Reichsmarine modernisiert.

Februar wurde sie als Flottenflaggschiff der Reichsmarine wieder in Dienst gestellt. Die Schleswig-Holstein besuchte vom Mai Palma de Mallorca mit Hessen und Amazone , vom 1.

Juni Barcelona mit Elsass und vom Juni Vigo , wo vom gesamten Geschwader Kohlen für den Rückmarsch übernommen wurden.

März über Ferrol 2. April nach Porto da Praia , Kap Verden, April bis 2. Mai , La Luz bei Las Palmas 2. Von dort lief der Gesamtverband mit einem Aufenthalt vom 4.

Juni in Lissabon und einer Parade vor dem portugiesischen Staatspräsidenten bis zum Juni nach Wilhelmshaven zurück. Die beiden vorderen der ursprünglich drei Schornsteine wurden zu einem zusammengefasst.

Die Kommandoanlagen am vorderen Röhrenmast wurden erweitert, der jetzt auf einer Plattform den Artillerieleitstand mit einem optischen Entfernungsmesser trug.

Die Flottenreise führte mit insgesamt vier Linienschiffen, zwei Kreuzern, einem Tender, vierzehn Torpedobooten und sechs Minensuchern nach Norwegen.

Im Winter leistete auch das Flottenflaggschiff, wie viele andere Schiffe der Reichsmarine, Eisbrecherdienste in der westlichen Ostsee und wurde dabei durch einen Erzdampfer beschädigt.

Die Flottenreise des Jahres ging nach Nordspanien mit insgesamt vier Linienschiffen, fünf neuen und vier alten Torpedobooten.

Im Spätsommer folgte noch eine Ostseereise mit der Hessen , achtzehn Torpedobooten, sechs Minensuchern und Tendern, auf der die beiden Linienschiffe mit fünf Torpedobooten Stockholm vom August bis zum 5.

September besuchten. Die organisatorischen Veränderung der Reichsmarine zum 1. Januar in Wilhelmshaven über zwei moderne Leichte Kreuzer verfügte.

Vom 2. April bis zum Juni wurde die Flottenreise nach Spanien und ins Mittelmeer mit vier Linienschiffen, einem Leichten Kreuzer und zehn Torpedobooten durchgeführt.

Im Sommer erfolgte die nächste Flottenreise wieder nach Norwegen. Die für geplante Auslandsreise nach Spanien fiel für die Flotte aus.

Mai wurde die Schleswig-Holstein das erste Flottenflaggschiff der durch Umbenennung der Reichsmarine entstandenen Kriegsmarine.

September endete ihre Zeit als Flottenflaggschiff, und sie wurde nach Wilhelmshaven verlegt. Sie sollte mit ihrem bereits umgebauten Schwesterschiff Schlesien künftig als Kadettenschulschiff dienen.

In zwei Etappen erfolgte der Umbau. Zuerst wurden die Schwalbennester entfernt und Wohn- und Unterrichtsräume für die neue Aufgabe geschaffen.

Dazu wurden die Bewaffnung, die Feuerleitanlagen, die Funkanlagen und die Navigationsmittel modernisiert.

März , dem Tag der Rheinlandbesetzung , abgeschlossen.

Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Its capital city is Kiel ; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg. The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig. Retrieved 28 June Ab sind insgesamt drei mittelalterliche Leprosorien in Schleswig nachweisbar; das erste entstand im heutigen Stadtteil St. Affairs were ripe for a crisis, which the threatened failure of 2020 Jahr Tage Pro common male heirs to the kingdom and the duchies precipitated. Haithabu was once again and ultimately destroyed by fire in Für die Sportschifffahrt eignen sich unter anderem die Ostsee und die Unterelbe. Der Landtag source die Ministerpräsidentin oder den Ministerpräsidenten. Deutschland musste als Verlierer des Krieges einen ungünstigen Zuschnitt der Stimmbezirke sowie unvorteilhafte Abstimmungsmodi en bloc im Norden, gemeindeweise in Mittelschleswig akzeptieren, was unter anderem zum Verlust der überwiegend deutschgesinnten Städte ApenradeSonderburg und Tondern sowie der grenznahen deutschgesinnten Teile des Kreises Tondern führte siehe auch Nordschleswig. Gründung :. Yachthäfen an der Nordsee sind Beste Spielothek in BienenbСЊttel und daher häufig nicht durchgehend erreichbar. Der Christdemokrat Theodor Steltzerder dem militärischen Widerstand gegen das NS-Regime nahegestanden hatte, wurde im November als Oberpräsident an die Spitze der Verwaltung berufen, später zum ersten Ministerpräsidenten ernannt. LübeckKiel und Flensburg sind traditionsreiche Stätten des Boxsports. Gerhard Stoltenberg. Vermutlich bereits seit der Bronzezeit führte der Ochsenweg durch das Land, der dem Handel der nordjütischen Viehbestände diente. Der Südosten des Landes war bis ins Namensräume Artikel Continue reading. Im Gegensatz zu den ursprünglichen Hauptzielen der meisten deutschen Schleswig-Holsteiner — Loslösung von Dänemark und Mitgliedschaft als eigenständiges Staatsgebilde innerhalb des Deutschen Bundes — erreichten die Herzogtümer also nur congratulate, Billard Warschauer Str opinion Loslösung vom Dänischen Gesamtstaat, nicht jedoch ihre Unabhängigkeit. Insgesamt sind im Land in Vereinen etwa Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. So kauften laut einer Umfrage fast 60 Https://tasbandung.co/online-casino-real-money/beste-spielothek-in-schirnaidel-finden.php der dänischen Haushalte Theme Spiele Kat Lee: Bounty Hunter - Video Slots Online something oder Limonade in deutschen Grenzmärkten. Septemberabgerufen am Fehlende Artikel: Sie brauchen Informationen über ein Thema im Zusammenhang good Id Nummer Finden happiness dem Schleswig-Holstein - aber haben leider in unserem Bestand nichts gefunden? Schleswig-Holstein ist ein protestantisch geprägtes Article source. Dabei sind besonders die Schleswigsche Geest auf der schon früh für https://tasbandung.co/online-casino-nl/em-geheimfavorit.php Verkehr wichtigen Landenge zwischen Schlei und der Eider mit der bereits genannten Südergoesharde und der Landschaft Stapelholm zu nennen. In ihr spiegeln sich die Nähe zur Nord- und Ostsee und den skandinavischen Ländern wieder. Herzlich willkommen im Portal Schleswig-Holstein. Der Landtag wählt die Ministerpräsidentin oder den Ministerpräsidenten. Siehe auch : Ergebnisse der Landtagswahlen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Ist ein Volksbegehren zustande gekommen, so muss innerhalb von neun Monaten über den Gesetzentwurf oder die andere Vorlage ein Volksentscheid herbeigeführt werden.

Der Landtag kann einen eigenen Gesetzentwurf oder eine andere Vorlage zur gleichzeitigen Abstimmung stellen. Ein Volksentscheid findet nicht statt, wenn der Landtag das Gesetz schon verabschiedet hat, sodass ein Volksentscheid überflüssig geworden ist und wenn das Bundesverfassungsgericht auf Antrag des Landtages oder der Landesregierung das Volksbegehren als verfassungswidrig eingestuft hat.

Der Gesetzentwurf oder die andere Vorlage ist durch Volksentscheid angenommen, wenn die Mehrheit derjenigen, die ihre Stimme abgegeben haben, jedoch mindestens ein Viertel der Stimmberechtigten, zugestimmt hat.

Eine Verfassungsänderung durch Volksentscheid bedarf der Zustimmung von zwei Dritteln derjenigen, die ihre Stimme abgegeben haben, jedoch mindestens die Hälfte der Stimmberechtigten.

In der Abstimmung zählen nur die gültigen Ja- und Nein-Stimmen. Die Gesetzentwürfe werden von der Landesregierung oder von einzelnen oder mehreren Abgeordneten des Landtages oder durch Initiativen aus dem Volk eingebracht.

Die Gesetze werden durch den Landtag oder durch Volksentscheid beschlossen. Gesetze , die die Verfassung ändern, bedürfen der Zustimmung von zwei Dritteln der Mitglieder des Landtages sowie der Zustimmung des Volkes.

Die Landesflagge besteht aus drei horizontalen Streifen. Die Farben sind aus dem Landeswappen genommen und sind zum ersten Mal von den deutschen Schleswig-Holsteinern im sich abzeichnenden deutsch-dänischen Konflikt um Schleswig verwendet worden.

Im Jahre wurde die Flagge offiziell von den Briten anerkannt. Die Dienstflagge enthält im Gegensatz zur Landesflagge das Landeswappen. Bei offizieller Beflaggung wird die Dienstflagge gehisst.

Schiffe führen eine Erkennungsflagge in den Farben der Landesflagge. Landeswappen, Landesfarben und -flagge wurden erst durch das Gesetz über die Hoheitszeichen des Landes Schleswig-Holstein vom Januar festgelegt.

Seit gibt es als Bürgerwappen ein unten abgerundetes Landeswappen. Die geläufige Bezeichnung ist Schleswig-Holstein-Lied.

Die Zahl der Kreise wurde von 17 siehe Provinz Schleswig-Holstein auf elf gesenkt; die Zahl der Gemeinden sank mittelfristig von auf und die bisher Ämter wurden in Ämter zusammengefasst.

Schleswig-Holstein besteht heute Stand: 1. März aus insgesamt vier kreisfreien Städten, elf Kreisen, 84 Ämtern und Gemeinden. Stadtrecht kann eine Gemeinde erhalten, die mindestens Der Kreis Pinneberg ist mit Einen Sonderstatus nimmt seit dem 1.

Dies bedeutet, dass einige Aufgaben über einen öffentlich-rechtlichen Vertrag vom Kreis hier: Segeberg an die Stadt übertragen werden können.

Im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Ländern änderte daran auch die durchgeführte Gebietsreform nichts. Arnis ist mit seinen rund Einwohnern die kleinste Stadt Deutschlands.

Gröde und Wiedenborstel gehören zu den kleinsten eigenständigen Gemeinden Deutschlands. November schlug der Südschleswigsche Wählerverband vor, dass die Anzahl der Gemeinden bis von derzeit auf sinken solle.

Hintergrund ist die Annahme, dass die kleinteilige Gemeindestruktur Demokratiedefizite besitze.

Zur Kommunalwahl hatte es in knapp jeder dritten Gemeinde nur noch eine einzige Wählerliste gegeben. Schleswig-Holstein ist ein ländlich und protestantisch geprägtes Land.

Mit dem Abgleiten in die bundespolitische Bedeutungslosigkeit aufgrund der fortschreitenden Integration der Heimatvertriebenen in die westdeutsche Gesellschaft verlor er aber auch hier die meisten Wähler.

Die regionale Stimmenverteilung innerhalb des Landes ist sehr verschieden. Bei der Europawahl wurden die Grünen die landesweit stärkste Partei.

Er vertritt die Interessen der dänischen und eines Teils der friesischen Minderheit und ist bei Landtagswahlen von der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde nach dem Wahlgesetz für den Landtag von Schleswig-Holstein ausgenommen.

Die Regierung wird seit der Landtagswahl in Schleswig-Holstein am 7. Petersburg, Vilnius, Riga und Tallinn.

Die Lübecker Flender-Werft stellte den Betrieb ein. In den letzten Jahren gewinnt der Seehandel mit anderen Ostseestaaten wieder an Bedeutung.

In Schleswig-Holstein sind gut zwei Drittel der gesamten deutschen Fischereiflotte stationiert. Im Jahr erwirtschafteten etwa Auch der Grenzhandel spielt eine Rolle in der schleswig-holsteinischen Wirtschaft.

So kauften laut einer Umfrage fast 60 Prozent der dänischen Haushalte Bier oder Limonade in deutschen Grenzmärkten.

In der Branche der Erneuerbaren Energien arbeiten derzeit mehr als Gerade in ländlichen Räumen ist neue Wertschöpfung entstanden.

Von diesen ist nur noch das KKW Brokdorf aktiv; die beiden anderen wurden nach der Nuklearkatastrophe von Fukushima März ausgeschaltet und bleiben nach einer Änderung des Atomgesetzes Atomausstieg endgültig abgeschaltet.

Eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle spielt hingegen die im Rahmen der Energiewende vorangetriebene Nutzung Erneuerbarer Energiequellen.

Die Regierung sprach sich dafür aus, bis den Anteil Erneuerbarer Energien am Bruttostromverbrauch auf bis Prozent zu steigern und somit zunehmend auch andere Länder zu versorgen.

Am Flugplatz Kiel -Holtenau gibt es schon seit keine Linienflüge mehr, Ausbaupläne wurden verworfen.

Pläne, auf dem Flugplatzgelände in Kiel Wohnungen zu errichten, wurden von der Mehrheit der Abstimmenden abgelehnt. Die wichtigsten Autobahnen des Landes gehen von Hamburg aus.

Die Bundesautobahn 21 soll einmal Kiel mit Lüneburg in Niedersachsen verbinden. Der begonnene Bau der A21 stockt jedoch immer wieder.

Mit der B besteht bereits heute die Möglichkeit, die Elbe östlich von Hamburg zu überqueren und den stauintensiven Neuen Hamburger Elbtunnel zu umgehen.

Die Rader Hochbrücke muss zunächst verschwenkt und dann abgerissen werden, da sie den Verkehrsströmen nur noch wenige Jahre standhalten kann.

Die neue Rader Hochbrücke soll fertiggestellt sein. Die Hauptstrecken der Eisenbahn sind auf Hamburg ausgerichtet. Im Zuge der geplanten Festen Fehmarnbeltquerung ist zwischen Lübeck und Fehmarn eine neutrassierte, leistungsfähigere Strecke in Planung.

Diese drei elektrifizierten und weitgehend zweigleisigen Strecken können als Teil der Jütlandlinie gesehen werden.

Auf weiteren Strecken findet zurzeit nur Saison- und Museumsverkehr statt:. Darüber hinaus gibt es noch weitere Privatbahnen in Schleswig-Holstein.

Der Regionalverkehr im Land ist vertaktet, sodass auf jeder Strecke mindestens alle zwei Stunden Züge verkehren.

Auf den meisten Strecken gibt es einen Stundentakt , teilweise sogar einen Halbstundentakt. Eine Ausnahme bildet die Strecke Niebüll—Dagebüll, die aufgrund des Fährfahrplans nicht vertaktet ist.

Kiel und Lübeck sind ebenso für den Güterverkehr nach Skandinavien sowie nach Osteuropa wichtig. Lübeck-Travemünde und Kiel sind zudem wichtige Fähr- bzw.

Puttgarden ist der deutsche Hafen der Vogelfluglinie nach Dänemark. Der Nord-Ostsee-Kanal ist mit über Der Schiffsverkehr auf dem Kanal hat sich zwischen und knapp verdreifacht.

Zunehmende Bedeutung erlangte ab den er Jahren der Flughafen Sylt ; er wird seit mehrmals täglich von Fluggesellschaften im Liniendienst angeflogen und hatte ein Passagieraufkommen von Die Fliegerhorste Hohn und Schleswig werden weiterhin militärisch genutzt, während andere Militärflugplätze stillgelegt oder wie der ehemalige Fliegerhorst Husum zum Flugplatz Husum-Schwesing umgewandelt wurden.

Schleswig-Holstein verfügt über drei Universitäten, wobei aber nur die traditionsreiche, gegründete Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel eine Volluniversität ist.

Daneben hat die Universität Lübeck eine medizinische und eine technisch-naturwissenschaftlicher Fakultät. Die Universität Flensburg ist aus der Pädagogischen Hochschule hervorgegangen.

Eine Besonderheit an der schleswig-holsteinischen Bildungslandschaft sind die insgesamt 48 dänischen Schulen im Landesteil Schleswig, die vom Dänischen Schulverein für Südschleswig getragen werden.

Die hier erworbenen zweisprachigen Schulabschlüsse werden ohne Weiteres sowohl in Deutschland als auch in Dänemark anerkannt.

Beim Bildungsmonitor wurden die Bildungssysteme der Bundesländer miteinander verglichen auf Basis von zwölf verschiedenen Indikatoren, wie z.

Bildungsarmut oder Förderinfrastruktur. Schleswig-Holstein belegte den Platz, [85] im Jahr den Schleswig-Holstein hat im Vergleich der Bundesländer Stand mit ungefähr 16, das deutschlandweit höchste Schüler zu Lehrkräfteverhältnis Bundesdurchschnitt: 15, Forschung auf anerkannt hohem und internationalem Niveau wird in Schleswig-Holstein in Bereichen wie Meeresforschung, Biomedizin und Medizintechnik sowie in den Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften betrieben.

Sie ist geprägt von historisch-geografischen Faktoren wie der Lage zwischen Nordsee und Ostsee sowie der früheren bäuerlichen Kultur.

Besonders im Norden des Landes ist der skandinavische Einfluss in der Architektur und Wohnkultur erkennbar. Schleswig-Holstein ist ein Land mit reicher literarischer Tradition.

Seit schrieben weitere schleswig-holsteinische Autoren deutsche Literaturgeschichte. Eine Besonderheit ist die nordfriesische Literatur.

Es präsentiert alljährlich im Juli und August rund Konzerte vor über Daneben fanden im Rahmen der Orchesterakademie bis im Landeskulturzentrum Salzau sowie heute noch die Meisterkurse an der Musikhochschule Lübeck sowie der Chorakademie eine international renommierte Nachwuchsförderung von Hochbegabten aus aller Welt statt.

Seit findet um Pfingsten das Bluesfest Eutin mit bis zu In Kiel schlossen sich acht Sammlungen und Museen zum Verbund museen am meer zusammen.

Durch die langen Küsten ist der Wassersport ebenso populär wie das Angeln , vor allem aber ist Kiel eine der Weltmetropolen des Segelns , anerkannt durch die Segelwettbewerbe der Olympischen Sommerspiele und Olympischen Sommerspiele Auf der Flensburger Förde tragen die Segler traditionell während der herbstlichen Förde-Woche die letzten Segelwettkämpfe des Jahres aus.

Insgesamt sind im Land in Vereinen etwa Sylt und Fehmarn gelten als Mekka vieler Windsurfer. Das Rudern hat in Ratzeburg ein Bundesleistungszentrum und einen Olympiastützpunkt.

Unter anderem wurden die erfolgreichen Deutschland-Achter von und in Ratzeburg gebildet. Seit etwa hat sich das Kitesurfen an der Ost- und der Westküste etabliert.

In St. Peter-Ording finden zahlreiche Wettbewerbe in dieser Sportart statt. Vor Gründung der 1. Im Folgejahr gelang wiederum der Einzug ins Endspiel, welches wieder gegen Schwäbisch Hall verloren wurde.

Seitdem war meistens im Halbfinale Endstation, jedoch gelang auch , und die Qualifikation für die Playoffs.

Unter dem Dach des VfB Lübeck wird ebenfalls erfolgreich Badminton gespielt, dort befindet sich ein Bundesnachwuchsstützpunkt. Lübeck , Kiel und Flensburg sind traditionsreiche Stätten des Boxsports.

Faustball-Hochburgen sind Kellinghusen , Schülp b. Nortorf und Gnutz. Weitere Sportarten wie das Reiten sind ebenfalls populär und haben viele Spitzensportler hervorgebracht.

Bundesliga Nord. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Schleswig-Holstein Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.

Marsch auf Eiderstedt. Viscount Palmerston , britischer Premierminister [21]. Siehe auch : Schleswig-Holsteinische Staatsschulden — Siehe auch : Geschichte der deutschen Länder.

Mitglieder des Schleswig-Holsteinischen Landtags. Siehe auch : Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesverfassungsgericht.

Siehe auch : Ergebnisse der Landtagswahlen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Landesregierungen des Landes Schleswig-Holstein. Siehe auch : Liste der Hochschulen in Schleswig-Holstein.

Die Anzahl der Angehörigen der Minderheit liegt nach dieser Studie bei etwa In: verfassungen. August , abgerufen am 7.

Oktober In: statistik. Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, abgerufen am 2. Dezember Juni Memento vom 8.

In: faz. Abgerufen am 4. Abgerufen am Vom Mittelalter bis Beiheft 1: Bismarck und seine Zeit. Habich, D. Lafrenz, H.

Schulze, L. Wilde: Schlösser und Gutsanlagen in Schleswig-Holstein. Neumünster , S. Sowjetische Kriegsgefangene in Schleswig-Holstein , abgerufen am: 2.

In: Die Zeit. September , abgerufen am April Dezember EKD, Dezember Juni PDF; S. Dezember , abgerufen am Dezember auf Basis des Zensus November , abgerufen am 1.

November In: Welt. Mai welt. August ]. An vielen Orten rebellieren sie. Februar In: Täglicher Hafenbericht. Mai , S.

Eurostat , Juni Memento vom Juli im Internet Archive. Internetseite der Deutschen Windguard. Juli DEWI-Magazin In: Täglicher Hafenbericht vom Februar , S.

April , S. Mai ]. In: Täglicher Hafenbericht , Januar , S. Januar englisch. Köln insm-bildungsmonitor. September In: GamesWirtschaft.

Februar , abgerufen am Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Commons Wikinews Wikisource Wikivoyage. Sprache :. Deutsch ca.

Landeshauptstadt :. Staatsform :. Fläche :. Gründung :. August [7]. ISO :. Einwohnerzahl :. Dezember [8].

Bevölkerungsdichte :. Arbeitslosenquote :. BIP nominal :. Schulden :. Regierungschef :. Landtagspräsident :. Sitzverteilung des Landtags : [12].

Sitzverteilung im Landesparlament :. Nächste Wahl :. Stimmen im Bundesrat :. Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg. Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde.

Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg. Theodor Steltzer. Hermann Lüdemann. Bruno Diekmann. Walter Bartram. Friedrich-Wilhelm Lübke. The secular rule in the fiscally divided duchies thus became a condominium of the parties.

With the independent peasant republic of Dithmarschen only claimed. The dynastic name Holstein-Gottorp comes as convenient usage from the technically more correct Duke of Schleswig and Holstein at Gottorp , the residential palace.

The Danish monarchs and the Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein at Gottorp and Haderslev ruled both duchies together as to general government, however, collected their revenues in their separate estates.

In through the Final Feud they conquered and subjected the peasant republic of Dithmarschen, partitioning it into three shares.

However, these had no share in the condominial rule and were always mediatised under the King as Duke in Schleswig and Holstein, and no immediate prince under the Emperor as liege lord of Holstein, where they held estates around Plön.

In the Princes of Schauenburg were extinct in the male line and the County of Holstein-Pinneberg was merged into the royal share of the Duchy of Holstein.

During the years' War the relations between Duke and King worsened. Finally in , after the Danes had invaded Swedish Bremen-Verden , the Duke cooperated with the Swedes in their counter-attack which almost eradicated the Danish Kingdom.

Frederick III , duke from to , established the principle of primogeniture for his line, and the full sovereignty of his Schleswig dominions was secured to him by his son-in-law Charles X of Sweden by the convention of Copenhagen May 12, and to his son Christian Albert d.

Christian Albert's son Frederick IV d. In the regent broke the stipulated neutrality of the duchy in favour of Sweden and Frederick IV of Denmark seized the excuse to expel the duke by force of arms.

Holstein was restored to him by the peace of Frederiksborg in , but in the following year king Frederick IV was recognised as sole sovereign of Schleswig by the estates and by the partitioned-off dukes of the Augustenburg and Glücksburg lines.

As Sweden in the Siege of Tönning had lost its influence on Holstein-Gottorp, Denmark could again subjugate the entire Slesvig to the Danish realm; Holstein-Gottorps lost their lands in Schleswig, but continued as independent Dukes in their portion of Holstein.

This status was cemented in the Treaty of Frederiksborg in , by which the prior royal and ducal regions of Schleswig were united under the king, while the Duke remained Duke of Holstein-Gottorp under the German Emperor.

The frustrated duke sought support for the recovery of Schleswig in Russia and married into the Russian imperial family in Peter III threatened war with Denmark for the recovery of his ancestral lands, but before any fighting could begin he was overthrown by his wife, who took control of Russia as Tsarina Catherine II.

In Catherine resigned Russia's claims in Schleswig-Holstein, in the name of her son later Paul I of Russia , who confirmed this action on coming of age in with the Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo.

Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, surrendered by the Danish king in compensation, were handed over to Frederick August, bishop of Lübeck, the second son of Christian August, who thus founded the younger line of the house of Gottorp.

Schleswig and Holstein were thus once more united under the Danish king Christian VII , who now received all Holstein, but that formally under the Empire.

On the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in , Holstein was practically, though not formally, incorporated in Denmark.

Under the administration of the Danish prime minister Count Bernstorff , himself from Schleswig, many reforms were carried out in the duchies, for example, abolition of torture and of serfdom; at the same time Danish laws and coinage were introduced, and Danish was made the official language for communication with Copenhagen.

Since, however, the Danish court itself at the time was largely German in language and feeling, this produced no serious expressions of resentment.

The settlement of was reversed, and while Schleswig remained as before, the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg , the latter acquired in personal union by a territorial swap following the Congress of Vienna , were included in the new German Confederation.

The opening up of the Schleswig-Holstein question thus became sooner or later inevitable. The Germans of Holstein, influenced by the new national enthusiasm evoked by the War of Liberation , resented more than ever the attempts of the government of Copenhagen to treat them as part of the Danish monarchy and, encouraged by the sympathy of the Germans in Schleswig, early tried to reassert in the interests of Germanism the old principle of the unity of the duchies.

The political atmosphere, however, had changed at Copenhagen also; and their demands were met by the Danes with a nationalist temper as intractable as their own.

Affairs were ripe for a crisis, which the threatened failure of the common male heirs to the kingdom and the duchies precipitated.

The Duchy of Schleswig was originally an integrated part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria had to the Holy Roman Emperor.

Holstein had as a fief been part of the Holy Roman Empire, and was eventually established as a single united province. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark, the Holy Roman Empire, or been virtually independent of both nations.

Since both were ruled by the Kings of Denmark with the Dukes of Holstein and Schleswig since In all of Schleswig was united as a single Duchy under the King of Denmark, and the Great Powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future Kings of Denmark should automatically become Duke of Schleswig and Schleswig would consequently always follow the same line of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark.

It was one of the oddities of both the Holy Roman Empire and of the German Confederation that foreign heads of state could be and often were also members of the constitutional organs of the Empire and the Confederation if they held a territory that was part of the Empire or the Confederation.

The Schleswig-Holstein Question was the name given to the whole complex of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century out of the relations of the two duchies, Schleswig and Holstein, to the Danish crown on one side and the German Confederation on the other.

In — the government of Denmark had claimed Schleswig and Holstein to be parts of the monarchy of Denmark, which was not popular among the German population in Schleswig-Holstein, who had traditionally the majority in Holstein and had gradually increased its dominance in Schleswig as well.

However, this development sparked a German national awakening after the Napoleonic wars and led to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification of both with a new Germany see German unification , turning out to be Prussian -dominated, as it was.

A controversy in the 19th century raged round the ancient indissoluble union of the two duchies, and the inferences to be drawn from it; the Danish National Liberals claimed Schleswig as an integral part of the Danish kingdom; Germans claimed, besides Holstein, being a member state of the German Confederation , also Schleswig.

The history of the relations of Schleswig and Holstein thus became of importance in the practical political question. The childlessness of King Frederick VII of Denmark worked in favour of the movement for the German unification, as did the ancient Treaty of Ribe , which stipulated that the two duchies must never be separated.

A counter-movement developed among the Danish population in northern Schleswig and from in Denmark, where the Liberals insisted that Schleswig as a fief had belonged to Denmark for centuries and that the Eider River , the historic border between Schleswig and Holstein, should mark the frontier between Denmark and the German Confederation or a new eventually united Germany.

The Danish nationalists thus aspired to incorporate Schleswig into Denmark, in the process separating it from Holstein.

The movement for the German unity conversely sought to confirm Schleswig's association with Holstein, in the process detaching Schleswig from Denmark and bringing it into the German Confederation.

When Christian VIII succeeded his first cousin Frederick VI in the elder male line of the house of Oldenburg was obviously on the point of extinction, the king's only son and heir having no children.

Ever since , when joint succession, consultative estates had been re-established for the duchies, the question of the succession had been debated in this assembly.

To German opinion the solution seemed clear enough. The crown of Denmark could be inherited by female heirs see Louise of Hesse ; in the duchy of Holstein the Salic law had never been repealed and, in the event of a failure of male heirs to Christian VIII, the succession would pass to the Dukes of Augustenburg — although this was debatable as the dynasty itself had received Holstein by Christian I of Denmark being the son of the sister of the last Schauenburg, Adolphus VIII.

Danish opinion, on the other hand, clamoured for a royal pronouncement proclaiming the principle of the indivisibility of the monarchy and its transmission intact to a single heir, in accordance with the royal law.

To this Christian VIII yielded so far as to issue in letters patent declaring that the royal law in the matter of the succession was in full force so far as Schleswig was concerned, in accordance with the letters patent of August 22, , the oath of fidelity of September 3, , the guarantees given by France and Great Britain in the same year and the treaties of and with Russia.

As to Holstein, he stated that certain circumstances prevented him from giving, in regard to some parts of the duchy, so clear a decision as in the case of Schleswig.

The principle of the independence of Schleswig and of its union with Holstein were expressly reaffirmed. An appeal against this by the estates of Holstein to the German Federal Assembly received no attention.

On January 28, Christian VIII issued a rescript proclaiming a new constitution which, while preserving the autonomy of the different parts of the country, incorporated them for common purposes in a single organisation.

The estates of the duchies replied by demanding the incorporation of Schleswig-Holstein, as a single constitutional state, in the German Confederation.

In March these differences led to an open uprising by the German-minded Estate assemblies in the duchies in support of independence from Denmark and of close association with the German Confederation.

The military intervention of Prussia helped the uprising: the Prussian army drove Denmark's troops from Schleswig and Holstein. Frederick VII , who had succeeded his father at the end of January, declared March 4 that he had no right to deal in this way with Schleswig, and, yielding to the importunity of the Eider-Danish party, withdrew the rescript of January April 4 and announced to the people of Schleswig March 27 the promulgation of a liberal constitution under which the duchy, while preserving its local autonomy, would become an integral part of Denmark.

A Liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen since it was a well-known fact that the German political elite of Holstein was far more conservative than the one in Copenhagen.

This proved to be true, as the politicians of Holstein demanded that the Constitution of Denmark be scrapped, not only in Schleswig but also in Denmark, as well as demanding that Schleswig immediately follow Holstein and become a member of the German Confederation and eventually a part of the new united Germany.

The rebels established a provisional government at Kiel ; and the duke of Augustenburg had hurried to Berlin to secure the assistance of Prussia in asserting around his rights.

This was at the very crisis of the revolution in Berlin , and the Prussian government saw in the proposed intervention in Denmark in a popular cause an excellent opportunity for restoring its damaged prestige.

Prussian troops were accordingly marched into Holstein. This war between Denmark on the one hand and the two duchies and Prussia on the other lasted three years — and only ended when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Convention of Under the terms of this peace agreement, the German Confederation returned the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark.

In an agreement with Prussia under the London Protocol of , the Danish government in return undertook not to tie Schleswig more closely to Denmark than to the duchy of Holstein.

In King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a Liberal Constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to secure that this Constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, that is, not only to the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes and Germans living in Schleswig.

Furthermore, they demanded the protection of the Danish language in Schleswig since the dominating language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Nationalist circles in Denmark advocated Danification of Schleswig but not of Holstein as Danish national culture had risen much in past decades.

On April 12, the federal assembly recognised the provisional government of Schleswig and commissioned Prussia to enforce its decrees, General Wrangel was ordered to occupy Schleswig also.

The new provisional government accounted for the respect of the two major languages, neglecting Frisian, in Schleswig and appointed two Lutheran general superintendents one each for parishes of Danish and of German language Johannes Andreas Rehhoff and Nicolaus Johann Ernst Nielsen , respectively.

But the German movement and Prussia had reckoned without the European powers, which were united in opposing any dismemberment of Denmark.

Even Austria, like Holstein a member state of the German Confederation, refused to assist in enforcing the German view. Swedish troops landed to assist the Danes; Nicholas I of Russia , speaking with authority as Head of the elder Gottorp line, pointed out to King Frederick William IV the risks of a collision; Great Britain, though the Danes rejected her mediation, threatened to send her fleet to assist in preserving the status quo.

Frederick William now ordered Wrangel to withdraw his troops from the duchies. The general refused to obey, pleading that he was under the command not of the king of Prussia but of the regent of the German Confederation, Archduke John of Austria , and proposed that, at least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament.

This the Danes refused; and negotiations were broken off. Prussia was now confronted on one side by the German unification movement urging her clamorously to action, on the other by the European powers threatening with one voice dire consequences should she persist.

On August 26, , after painful hesitation, Frederick William chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and Prussia signed at Malmö a convention which yielded practically all the Danish demands.

The Holstein estates appealed to the Frankfurt Parliament, which hotly took up their cause; but it was soon clear that the provisional government in Frankfurt of the to-be-unified Germany had no means of enforcing its views, and in the end the convention was ratified at Frankfurt.

The convention was only in the nature of a truce establishing a temporary modus vivendi , and the main issues, left unsettled, continued to be hotly debated.

At a conference held in London in October, Denmark suggested an arrangement on the basis of a separation of Schleswig from Holstein, which was about to become a member of the eventually united Germany, Schleswig to have a separate constitution under the Danish crown.

This was supported by Great Britain and Russia. On January 27, it was accepted by Prussia and the German Confederation.

The negotiations broke down, however, on the refusal of Denmark to yield the principle of the indissoluble union with the Danish crown.

The principles which Prussia was commissioned to enforce as the mandatory of the German Confederation were:. At this point the tsar intervened in favour of peace; and Prussia, conscious of her restored strength and weary of the intractable temper of the provisional Frankfurt government, determined to take matters into her own hands.

On July 10, another truce was signed. Schleswig, until the peace, was to be administered separately, under a mixed commission. Holstein was to be governed by a vicegerent of the German Confederation — an arrangement equally offensive to German and Danish sentiment.

A settlement seemed as far off as ever. The Danes of Schleswig still clamoured for the principle of succession in the female line and union with Denmark, the Germans for that of succession in the male line and union with Holstein.

In the Constitution of Denmark was adopted. This complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new democratic constitution to apply for all Danes, including in the Danes in Schleswig.

The constitutions of Holstein and Schleswig were dominated by the Estates system, giving more power to the most affluent members of society, with the result that both Schleswig and Holstein were politically dominated by a predominantly German class of landowners.

Thus, two systems of government co-existed within the same state: democracy in Denmark, and pre-modern estates system in Schleswig and Holstein.

The three units were governed by one cabinet, consisting of liberal ministers of Denmark who urged for economical and social reforms, and conservative ministers of the Holstein nobility who opposed political reform.

This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking. Moreover, Danish opponents of this so-called Unitary State Helstaten feared that Holstein's presence in the government and, at the same time, membership in the German Confederation would lead to increased German interference with Schleswig, or even into purely Danish affairs.

In Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. Same applied to foreign powers such as Great Britain, France and Russia, who would not accept a weakened Denmark in favour of the German states, nor acquisition of Holstein with its important naval harbour of Kiel and control of the entrance to the Baltic by Prussia.

In April , in utter weariness Prussia proposed a definitive peace on the basis of the status quo ante bellum and the postponement of all questions as to mutual rights.

To Palmerston the basis seemed meaningless, the proposed settlement to settle nothing. The emperor Nicholas, openly disgusted with Frederick William's weak-kneed truckling to the Revolution, again intervened.

To him the duke of Augustenburg was a rebel; Russia had guaranteed Schleswig to the Danish crown by the treaties of and ; as for Holstein, if the king of Denmark was unable to deal with the rebels there, he himself would intervene as he had done in Hungary.

The threat was reinforced by the menace of the European situation. Austria and Prussia were on the verge of war, The sole hope of preventing Russia from throwing her sword into the scale of Austria lay in settling the Schleswig-Holstein question as Russia desired.

Frederick William's only alternative, an alliance with Louis Napoleon , who already dreamed of acquiring the Rhine frontier for France at the price of his aid in establishing German sea-power by the cession of the duchies, was abhorrent to him.

A peace treaty was signed between Prussia and Denmark on July 2, Both parties reserved all their antecedent rights.

Denmark was satisfied, since the treaty empowered the King to restore his authority in Holstein as Duke with or without the consent of the German Confederation.

Danish troops now marched in to coerce the refractory duchies; but while the fighting went on negotiations among the powers continued, and on August 2, Great Britain, France, Russia and Norway-Sweden signed a protocol, to which Austria subsequently adhered, approving the principle of restoring the integrity of the Danish monarchy.

The provisional Schleswig government was deposed, as were the Lutheran general superintendents, who were even exiled from the Oldenburg-ruled monarchies in Their position remained vacant with Superintendent Christoph Carl Julius Asschenfeldt officiating per pro.

The Copenhagen government, which in May made an abortive attempt to come to an understanding with the inhabitants of the duchies by convening an assembly of notables at Flensburg , issued on December 6, a project for the future organisation of the monarchy on the basis of the equality of its constituent states, with a common ministry; and on January 28, a royal letter announced the institution of a unitary state which, while maintaining the fundamental constitution of Denmark, would increase the parliamentary powers of the estates of the two duchies.

This proclamation was approved by Prussia and Austria, and by the German Federal Assembly insofar as it affected Holstein and Lauenburg.

The question of the succession was the next approached. Only the question of the Augustenburg succession made an agreement between the powers impossible, and on March 31, the duke of Augustenburg resigned his claim in return for a money payment.

Further adjustments followed. Another factor which doomed Danish interests, was that not only was the power of German culture rising, but so were conflicts with German States in the south, namely Prussia and Austria.

Schleswig and Holstein would, of course and inevitably, become the subject of a territorial dispute involving military encounters among the three states, Denmark, Prussia and Austria.

Danish government found itself nervous as it became expected that Frederik VII would leave no son, and that upon his death, under Salic law , the possible Crown Princess would have no actual legal right to Schleswig and Holstein of course that was debatable, as the dynasty itself had received Holstein by Christian I being son of the sister of last Schauenburg count of Holstein, but Salic Law was convenient to German nationalists in this case, furthermore Schleswig was a fief to the kings of Denmark with the Danish Kings Law, Kongeloven.

Ethnic-Danish citizens of Schleswig South Jutland panicked over the possibility of being separated from their mother country , agitated against the German element, and demanded that Denmark declare Schleswig an integral part of Denmark, which outraged German nationalists.

Holstein was part of the territory of the German Confederation , with which an annexation of whole Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark would have been incompatible.

This gave a good pretext to Prussia to engage in war with Denmark in order to seize Schleswig and Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists by 'liberating' Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.

After the renunciation by the emperor of Russia and others of their eventual rights, Charlotte, Landgravine of Hesse, sister of Christian VIII , and her son Prince Frederick transferred their rights to the latter's sister Louise, who in her turn transferred them to her husband Prince Christian of Glücksburg.

On May 8, , this arrangement received international sanction by the protocol signed in London by the five great powers and Norway and Sweden.

The protocol of London, while consecrating the principle of the integrity of Denmark, stipulated that the rights of the German Confederation in Holstein and Lauenburg should remain unaffected.

It was, in fact, a compromise, and left the fundamental issues unsettled. The German Federal Assembly had not been represented in London, and the terms of the protocol were regarded in German states as a humiliation.

As for the Danes, they were far from being satisfied with the settlement, which they approved only insofar as it gave them a basis for a more vigorous prosecution of their unionist schemes.

On February 15 and June 11, Frederick VII, after consulting the estates, promulgated special constitutions for Schleswig and Holstein respectively, under which the provincial assemblies received certain very limited powers.

On July 26, he published a common Danish constitution for the whole monarchy; it was little more unitary than a veiled absolutism. In the Lutheran church bodies of Schleswig and Holstein, until then led by general superintendents, until titled general provosts, were converted into Lutheran dioceses called Stift Schleswig Danish: Slesvig Stift and Stift Holstein Danish: Holsten Stift , each presided by a Lutheran bishop.

On October 2, the common Danish constitution was superseded by a parliamentary constitution of a modified type. The legality of this constitution was disputed by the two German great powers, on the ground that the estates of the duchies had not been consulted as promised in the royal letter of December 6, On February 11, the federal assembly of the German Confederation refused to admit its validity so far as Holstein and Lauenburg were concerned.

In the early s the "Schleswig-Holstein Question" once more became the subject of lively international debate, but with the difference that support for the Danish position was in decline.

The Crimean War had crippled the power of Russia , and France was prepared to renounce support for Danish interests in the duchies in exchange for compensations to herself elsewhere.

Queen Victoria and her consort Prince Albert had sympathy for the German position, but it was tempered by British ministers who saw the growth of German sea-power in the Baltic Sea as a danger to British naval supremacy, and consequently Great Britain sided with the Danes.

To that was added a grievance about tolls charged on shipping passing through the Danish Straits to pass between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.

To avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal , which could not be built as long as Denmark ruled Holstein.

The secessionist movement continued throughout the s and s, as proponents of German unification increasingly expressed the wish to include two Danish-ruled provinces Holstein and Schleswig in an eventual 'Greater Germany'.

Holstein was completely German, while the situation in Schleswig was complex. It was linguistically mixed between German, Danish and North Frisian.

The population was predominantly of Danish ethnicity, but many of them had switched to the German language since the 17th century.

German culture dominated in clergy and nobility, whereas Danish had a lower social status. For centuries, when the rule of the King was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions.

When ideas of democracy spread and national currents emerged from ca. The medieval Treaty of Ribe had proclaimed that Schleswig and Holstein were indivisible, however in another context.

As the events of threatened to politically divide the two duchies, Prussia was handed a good pretext to engage in war with Denmark to seize Schleswig-Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists in "liberating" Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.

On July 29, , In response to the renewed Danish claim to Schleswig as integral Danish territory, the German Federal Assembly instructed by Bismarck threatened German federal intervention.

Even this concession violated the principle of the indissoluble union of the duchies, but the German Federal Assembly, fully occupied at home, determined to refrain from further action till the Danish parliament should make another effort to pass a law or budget affecting the whole kingdom without consulting the estates of the duchies.

In July this happened, and in the spring of the estates were once more at open odds with the Danish government.

The German Federal Assembly now prepared for armed intervention; but it was in no condition to carry out its threats, and Denmark decided, on the advice of Great Britain, to ignore it and open negotiations directly with Prussia and Austria as independent powers.

These demanded the restoration of the union between the duchies, a question beyond the competence of the Confederation.

Denmark replied with a refusal to recognise the right of any foreign power to interfere in her relations with Schleswig; to which Austria, anxious to conciliate the smaller German princes, responded with a vigorous protest against Danish infringements of the compact of Lord John Russell now intervened, on behalf of Great Britain, with a proposal for a settlement of the whole question on the basis of the independence of the duchies under the Danish crown, with a decennial budget for common expenses to be agreed on by the four assemblies, and a supreme council of state consisting in relative proportion of Danes and Germans.

This was accepted by Russia and by the German great powers, and Denmark found herself isolated in Europe.

The international situation, however, favoured a bold attitude, and she met the representations of the powers with a flat defiance.

The retention of Schleswig as an integral part of the monarchy was to Denmark a matter of life and death; the German Confederation had made the terms of the protocol of , defining the intimate relations between the duchies, the excuse for unwarrantable interference in the internal affairs of the Denmark.

On March 30, , as a result of this, a royal compact's proclamation was published at Copenhagen repudiating the compacts of , and, by defining the separate position of Holstein in the Danish monarchy, negativing once for all the German claims upon Schleswig.

As the heirless king Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's future death.

Both duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark and shared a long mutual history, but their association with Denmark was extremely complex.

Holstein was a member of the German Confederation. Denmark, and Schleswig as it was a Danish fief , were outside the German Confederation.

German nationalists claimed that the succession laws of the two duchies were different from the similar law in Denmark. Danes, however, claimed that this only applied to Holstein, but that Schleswig was subject to the Danish law of succession.

A further complication was a much-cited reference in the Treaty of Ribe stipulating that Schleswig and Holstein should "be together and forever unseparated".

As counter-evidence, and in favour of the Danish view, rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, were produced.

According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg the future King Christian IX , the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic.

This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg Danish: Augustenborg who demanded, like in , the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein.

This happened at a particularly critical time as work on a new constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed with the draft awaiting his signature.

In the Duchy of Lauenburg the personal union with Denmark ended and her estates elected a new dynasty in The new so-called November Constitution would not annex Schleswig to Denmark directly, but instead create a joint parliament with the medieval title Rigsraadet to govern the joint affairs of both Denmark and Schleswig.

Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. A similar initiative, but also including Holstein, had been attempted in , but proved a failure because of the opposition of the people in Schleswig and their support in German states.

Royal authority shall be inherited. The law of succession is specified in the law of succession of July 31, applying for the entire Danish monarchy.

Denmark's new king, Christian IX , was in a position of extraordinary difficulty. The first sovereign act he was called upon to perform was to sign the new constitution.

To sign was to violate the terms of the London Protocol which would probably lead to war. To refuse to sign was to place himself in antagonism to the united sentiment of his Danish subjects, which was the basis of his reign.

He chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and on November 18 signed the constitution. The news was seen as a violation of the London Protocol , which prohibited such a change in the status quo.

It was received in German states with manifestations of excitement and anger. Frederick, duke of Augustenburg, son of the prince who in had renounced the succession to the duchies, now claimed his rights on the ground that he had had no share in the renunciation.

In Holstein an agitation in his favour had begun from the first, and this was extended to Schleswig when the terms of the new Danish constitution became known.

His claim was enthusiastically supported by the German princes and people, and in spite of the negative attitude of Austria and Prussia the federal assembly at the initiative of Otto von Bismarck decided to occupy Holstein pending the settlement of the decree of succession.

On December 24, , Saxon and Hanoverian troops marched into the German duchy of Holstein in the name of the German Confederation , and supported by their presence and by the loyalty of the Holsteiners the duke of Augustenburg assumed the government under the style of Duke Frederick VIII.

It was clear to Bismarck that Austria and Prussia, as parties to the London Protocol of , must and uphold the succession as fixed by it, and that any action they might take in consequence of the violation of that compact by Denmark must be so correct as to deprive Europe of all excuse for interference.

The publication of the new constitution by Christian IX was in itself sufficient to justify them. As to the ultimate outcome of their effective intervention, that could be left to the future to decide.

Austria had no clear views. King William wavered between his Prussian feeling and a sentimental sympathy with the duke of Augustenburg.

Bismarck alone knew exactly what he wanted, and how to attain it. After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig not Holstein into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.

The protests of Great Britain and Russia against the action of the German federal assembly, together with the proposal of Count Beust , on behalf of Saxony, that Bavaria should bring forward in that assembly a formal motion for the recognition of Duke Frederick's claims, helped Bismarck to persuade Austria that immediate action must be taken.

On December 28 a motion was introduced in the federal assembly by Austria and Prussia, calling on the Confederation to occupy Schleswig as a pledge for the observance by Denmark of the compacts of This implied the recognition of the rights of Christian IX, and was indignantly rejected; whereupon the federal assembly was informed that the Austrian and Prussian governments would act in the matter as independent European powers.

On January 16, the agreement between them was signed. An article drafted by Austria, intended to safeguard the settlement of , was replaced at Bismarck's instance by another which stated that the two powers would decide only in concert on the relations of the duchies, and that they would in no case determine the question of the succession save by mutual consent; and Bismarck issued an ultimatum to Denmark demanding that the November Constitution should be abolished within 48 hours.

This was rejected by the Danish government. The Austrian and Prussian forces crossed the Eider into Schleswig on February 1, , and war was inevitable.

An invasion of Denmark itself had not been part of the original programme of the allies; but on February 18 some Prussian hussars , in the excitement of a cavalry skirmish, crossed the frontier and occupied the village of Kolding.

Bismarck determined to use this circumstance to revise the whole situation. He urged upon the Austrians the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle once for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; and Austria reluctantly consented to press the war.

On March 11 a fresh agreement was signed between the powers, under which the compacts of were declared to be no longer valid, and the position of the duchies within the Danish monarchy as a whole was to be made the subject of a friendly understanding.

Meanwhile, however, Lord John Russell on behalf of Great Britain, supported by Russia, France and Sweden, had intervened with a proposal that the whole question should once more be submitted to a European conference.

The German powers agreed on condition that the compacts of London Protocol should not be taken as a basis, and that the duchies should be bound to Denmark by a personal tie only.

But the proceedings of the conference, which opened at London on April 25, only revealed the inextricable tangle of the issues involved.

Beust, on behalf of the Confederation, demanded the recognition of the Augustenburg claimant; Austria leaned to a settlement on the lines of that of ; Prussia, it was increasingly clear, aimed at the acquisition of the duchies.

The first step towards the realization of this latter ambition was to secure the recognition of the absolute independence of the duchies, and this Austria could only oppose at the risk of forfeiting her whole influence among the German states.

The two powers, then, agreed to demand the complete political independence of the duchies bound together by common institutions.

The next move was uncertain. As to the question of annexation Prussia would leave that open, but made it clear that any settlement must involve the complete military subordination of Schleswig-Holstein to herself.

This alarmed Austria, which had no wish to see a further extension of Prussia's already overgrown power, and she began to champion the claims of the duke of Augustenburg.

This contingency, however, Bismarck had foreseen and himself offered to support the claims of the duke at the conference if he would undertake to subordinate himself in all naval and military matters to Prussia, surrender Kiel for the purposes of a Prussian war-harbour, give Prussia the control of the projected Kiel Canal , and enter the Prussian Customs Union.

On this basis, with Austria's support, the whole matter might have been arranged without—as Beust pointed out Mem.

Comments

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *